Claude Lecouteux (born 8 February 1943) is a French historian who specialises in the study of Europe during the Middle Ages. He is Professor emeritus at the Paris-Sorbonne University, chair of German civilization and Literature of the Middle Ages. The author of several books, Lecouteux's work has focused on the study of popular beliefs regarding supernatural entities in the Middle Ages, arguing that many of them had their origins in pre-Christian beliefs. His domain of research includes magic, mythology and folk tales.
Lecouteux has taught at the University of Caen, where he had the chair of Germanic languages and literatures. He was also Director of the Review La grande Oreille.
Some of his most aclaimed works are De rebus in Oriente mirabilibus (1979), Petit dictionnaire de mythologie allemande (1992), Fées, sorcières et loups-garous au Moyen Âge: histoire du double (1992), Histoire des Vampires, autopsie d’un mythe (1999), Elle courait le garou: lycanthropes, hommes-ours, hommes-tigres, une anthologie (2008), Dictionnaire de mythologie tzigane (2016).